How does summer learning really affect students' academic achievement? | LBJ School of Public Affairs | The University of Texas at Austin
Education Week
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"Differences in summer enrichment between poor and wealthy students may not contribute much to long-term achievement gaps, according to a new analysis.

"Researcher Paul von Hippel set out to replicate the landmark 1982 Beginning School Study, which tracked more than 800 Baltimore schoolchildren from kindergarten through grade 8. That study found reading achievement gaps between high- and low-poverty schools widened each summer, ultimately tripling the size of their reading gaps from the start of primary school to the end of middle school in 1990. 

"However, as a new article in Education Next details, those results disappeared when von Hippel tried to replicate the study using newer tests, which use different formats and control for the difficulty of test items in ways that the earlier tests did not, adapting the difficulty of test questions as students move through the assessment."